Dysfunction in Public Service.
…[P]oliticians rarely if ever govern in democracies like Canada. The real governance is done by bureaucrats, who do everything but mouth the words being uttered by politicians. In most cases the politician has no real expertise in the ministerial portfolio he or she occupies and is completely reliant upon the civil servants who come with the turf. Ministers rarely verify facts on their own; all to often they simply accept the words of the bureaucrats. The men and women who have occupied the position of Minister of Indian Affairs have consistently been among the most gullible.
–Paul, Daniel N. First Nations History: We Were not the Savages – Collision between European and Native American Civilizations. Ch. 14 the Struggle for Freedom, p339.